Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

How to Cite Sources

Turabian Manual

Turabian style is commonly used style to cite sources for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations. 

Use the Notes-Bibliography system for literature, history and the arts.  Use the Author-date system for the sciences.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Turabian Manual for how to cite other sources in Turabian style:

  • Interviews and Personal Communications (Section 17.6.3, pg. 195-6, & Section 19.6.3, pg. 261)
  • Visual Sources (Section 17.8.1, pg. 200-1, & Section 19.8.1, pg. 265-6 )
  • Legal Cases (Section 17.9.7, pg. 210-11, & Section 19.9.7, pg. 276)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use Turabian style, see A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers.

Bibliography / Reference List Examples

Based on A Manual for Writers by Kate Turabian, 7th Edition, 2007


Notes-Bibliography System

For use in Literature, History, and the Arts

 

Journal Article: Print (see section 17.2, pg. 181-5)

Jenkins, J. Craig, David Jacobs, and Jon Agnone. "Political Opportunities
     and African-American Protest, 1948-1997." American Journal of
     Sociology
109, no. 2 (September 2003): 277-303.

Journal Article: Online (see section 17.2.7, pg. 185)

Shapiro, Lawrence A. "Multiple Realizations." Journal of Philosophy 97, no.
     12 (December 2000): 642, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-362X%
     2800012%2997%3A12%3C635%3AMR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q (accessed
     June 27, 2006).

Magazine Article (see section 17.3, pg. 185-6)

Print:

Schapiro, Mark. "New Power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation, December 24,
     2004.

Online:

Faris, Stephan. "'Freedom': No Documents Found," Salon.com, December
     16, 2005. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2005/12/16/censorship
     /index1.html (accessed December 19, 2005).

Entire book, print (see section 17.1, pg. 162-4)

One Author:

Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. New York: Farrar,
     Straus and Giroux, 2001.

Multiple Authors:

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth about
     History.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.

Editor or Translator:

Adorno, Theodor W., and Walter Benjamin. The Complete Correspondence,
     1928-1940.
Edited by Henri Lonitz. Translated by Nicholas Walker.
     Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 17.1.10, pg. 181)

Hellman, Hal. Great Feuds in Technology: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes
     Ever.
New York: John Wiley, 2004. Rocket e-book.

Books published online (see section 17.1.10, pg. 181)

Samora, Julian, and Patricia Vandel Simon. A History of the Mexican-
     American People.
Rev. ed. East Lansing, MI: Julian Samora Research
     Institute, Michigan State University, 2000. http://www.jsri.msu.edu
     /museum/pubs/MexAmHist/chapter14.html#six (accessed December
     19, 2005).

Book chapter in edited collection, print (see section 17.1.8, pg. 178-9)

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. "Religion and Feminism: A
     Reformist Christian Analysis." In Religion, Feminism, and the Family,
     edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 11-32. Lousiville,
     KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Works in anthologies, print (see section 17.1.8, pg. 179-80)

Wigglesworth, Michael. Excerpt from The Day of Doom. In The New
     Anthology of American Poetry: Traditions and Revolutions, Beginnings to
     1900,
edited by Steven Gould Axelrod, Camille Roman, and Thomas
     Travisano, 68-74. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.

Websites (see section 17.7.1, pg. 198)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. "Evanston Public Library
     Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach." Evanston Public
     Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed
     June 1, 2005).


Parenthetical citations-Reference list

For use in the Physical, Natural, and Social Sciences

 

Journal Article: Print (see section 19.2, pg. 247-250)

Jenkins, J. Craig, David Jacobs, and Jon Agnone. 2003.Political
     opportunities and African-American protest, 1948-1997." American
     Journal of Sociology
109, no. 2 (September): 277-303.

Journal Article: Online (see section 19.2.8, pg. 250-1)

Shapiro, Lawrence A. 2000. Multiple realizations. Journal of Philosophy 97,
     no. 12 (December): 635-54, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-362X%
     2800012%2997%3A12%3C635%3AMR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q (accessed
     June 27, 2006).

Magazine Article (see section 19.3, pg. 251-2)

Print:

Schapiro, Mark. 2004. New power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation, December
     24.

Online:

Faris, Stephan. 2005. "Freedom": No documents found," Salon.com,
     December 16. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2005/12/16/censor
     ship/index1.html (accessed December 19, 2005).

Entire book, print (see section 19.1, pg. 229-31)

One Author:

Ball, Philip. 2001. Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. New York:
     Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Multiple Authors:

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. 1994. Telling the truth
     about history.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Editor or Translator:

Adorno, Theodor W., and Walter Benjamin. 1999. The complete
     correspondence, 1928-1940.
Ed. Henri Lonitz. Trans. Nicholas Walker.
     Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 19.1.10, pg. 246)

Hellman, Hal. 2004. Great feuds in technology: Ten of the liveliest disputes
     ever.
New York: John Wiley. Rocket e-book.

Books published online (see section 19.1.10, pg. 246)
Samora, Julian, and Patricia Vandel Simon. 2000. A history of the Mexican-
     American people.
Rev. ed. East Lansing, MI: Julian Samora Research
     Institute, Michigan State University, 2000. http://www.jsri.msu.edu
     /museum/pubs/MexAmHist/chapter14.html#six (accessed December
     19, 2005).
Book chapter in edited collection, print (see section 19.1.9, pg. 244-5)

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. 1996. Religion and feminism: A
     reformist Christian analysis." In Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed.
     Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 11-32. Lousiville, KY:
     Westminster John Knox Press.

Works in anthologies, print (see section 19.1.9, pg. 245-6)

Wigglesworth, Michael. 2003 Excerpt from The Day of doom. In The new
     anthology of american poetry: Traditions and revolutions, beginnings to
     1900,
ed. Steven Gould Axelrod, Camille Roman, and Thomas
     Travisano, 68<-74. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Websites (see section 19.7.1, pg. 263-4)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library
    strategic plan, 2000-2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library.
     http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1-
    August 15, 2005).