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Strength & Conditioning

References Examples

Based on Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010

Journal Article with DOI (see section 7.01 1., pg. 198)

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status,
     and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24,
    225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article with DOI, more than seven authors (see section 7.01 2., pg. 198)

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C.,
    Asgaard, G., ...Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG
    activation and attention last more than 31 days and are more
    severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits.
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267.

Journal Article without DOI (see section 7.01 3., pg. 199)


Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
    immigration in the United States and its implications for local law
    enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.


Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
    mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness.
    E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Newspaper article (see section 7.01 10. & 11., pg. 200)


Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.
    The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.


Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The
    New York Times.
Retrieved from

Entire book, print (see section 7.02 18., pg. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 7.02 19., pg. 203)

O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Electronic-only book (see section 7.02 21., pg. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
[DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A
    guide to healing, recovery, and growth
[Adobe Digital Editions version].

Book chapter, print (see section 7.02 25., pg. 204)

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being.
    In M Eid & R. J. Larson (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.
    17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Reference book, print (see section 7.02 27., pg 204)

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington,
    DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry in an online reference work (see section 7.02 29. & 30., pg. 205)

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford
    encyclopedia of philosophy
(Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved


Online Help

The 6th edition is the most recent version of the APA style of writing. The first printing of the book included many errors.  Click HERE to download a .pdf with corrections to the guide.

APA style of citing requires the use of DOI's (Digital Object Identifiers) for all resources that have originated online. Articles found in library databases that were originally published in printed journals or magazines should be cited as PRINT articles. Articles found in library databases or on the Web that were originally published online should include a DOI.  Many databases will provide the DOI for you along with the rest of an article's citation information (title, author, etc.).  However, if you can not find a DOI for your article, or if you have a DOI, but don't know what article it is for, use the following online DOI Resolver:   If you are unable to determine the DOI of an article that originated online and NOT in print, simply include "Retrieved from" and the URL address of website at the end of the PRINT citation.

How to cite a Kindle book: Instructions from APA website.

APA Publication Manual

APA (American Psychological Association) style is the most commonly used style to cite sources within the social sciences.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the APA Manual for how to cite other sources in APA style:

  • Technical and Research Reports (Section 7.03, pg. 205)
  • Audiovisual Media (Section 7.04, pg. 209)
  • Legal Materials (Section Appendix 7.1, pg. 216)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style, see the APA Manual.

Citation Tool