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How to Cite Sources

Turabian Manual

Turabian style is commonly used style to cite sources for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations. 

Use the Notes-Bibliography system for literature, history and the arts.  Use the Author-date system for the sciences.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Turabian Manual for how to cite other sources in Turabian style:

  • Interviews and Personal Communications (Section 17.6.3, pg. 195-6, & Section 19.6.3, pg. 261)
  • Visual Sources (Section 17.8.1, pg. 200-1, & Section 19.8.1, pg. 265-6 )
  • Legal Cases (Section 17.9.7, pg. 210-11, & Section 19.9.7, pg. 276)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use Turabian style, see A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers.

Bibliography / Reference List Examples

Based on A Manual for Writers by Kate Turabian, 7th Edition, 2007


Notes-Bibliography System

For use in Literature, History, and the Arts

 

Journal Article: Print (see section 17.2, pg. 181-5)

Jenkins, J. Craig, David Jacobs, and Jon Agnone. "Political Opportunities
     and African-American Protest, 1948-1997." American Journal of
     Sociology
109, no. 2 (September 2003): 277-303.

Journal Article: Online (see section 17.2.7, pg. 185)

Shapiro, Lawrence A. "Multiple Realizations." Journal of Philosophy 97, no.
     12 (December 2000): 642, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-362X%
     2800012%2997%3A12%3C635%3AMR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q (accessed
     June 27, 2006).

Magazine Article (see section 17.3, pg. 185-6)

Print:

Schapiro, Mark. "New Power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation, December 24,
     2004.

Online:

Faris, Stephan. "'Freedom': No Documents Found," Salon.com, December
     16, 2005. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2005/12/16/censorship
     /index1.html (accessed December 19, 2005).

Entire book, print (see section 17.1, pg. 162-4)

One Author:

Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. New York: Farrar,
     Straus and Giroux, 2001.

Multiple Authors:

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth about
     History.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.

Editor or Translator:

Adorno, Theodor W., and Walter Benjamin. The Complete Correspondence,
     1928-1940.
Edited by Henri Lonitz. Translated by Nicholas Walker.
     Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 17.1.10, pg. 181)

Hellman, Hal. Great Feuds in Technology: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes
     Ever.
New York: John Wiley, 2004. Rocket e-book.

Books published online (see section 17.1.10, pg. 181)

Samora, Julian, and Patricia Vandel Simon. A History of the Mexican-
     American People.
Rev. ed. East Lansing, MI: Julian Samora Research
     Institute, Michigan State University, 2000. http://www.jsri.msu.edu
     /museum/pubs/MexAmHist/chapter14.html#six (accessed December
     19, 2005).

Book chapter in edited collection, print (see section 17.1.8, pg. 178-9)

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. "Religion and Feminism: A
     Reformist Christian Analysis." In Religion, Feminism, and the Family,
     edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 11-32. Lousiville,
     KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Works in anthologies, print (see section 17.1.8, pg. 179-80)

Wigglesworth, Michael. Excerpt from The Day of Doom. In The New
     Anthology of American Poetry: Traditions and Revolutions, Beginnings to
     1900,
edited by Steven Gould Axelrod, Camille Roman, and Thomas
     Travisano, 68-74. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.

Websites (see section 17.7.1, pg. 198)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. "Evanston Public Library
     Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach." Evanston Public
     Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed
     June 1, 2005).


Parenthetical citations-Reference list

For use in the Physical, Natural, and Social Sciences

 

Journal Article: Print (see section 19.2, pg. 247-250)

Jenkins, J. Craig, David Jacobs, and Jon Agnone. 2003.Political
     opportunities and African-American protest, 1948-1997." American
     Journal of Sociology
109, no. 2 (September): 277-303.

Journal Article: Online (see section 19.2.8, pg. 250-1)

Shapiro, Lawrence A. 2000. Multiple realizations. Journal of Philosophy 97,
     no. 12 (December): 635-54, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-362X%
     2800012%2997%3A12%3C635%3AMR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q (accessed
     June 27, 2006).

Magazine Article (see section 19.3, pg. 251-2)

Print:

Schapiro, Mark. 2004. New power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation, December
     24.

Online:

Faris, Stephan. 2005. "Freedom": No documents found," Salon.com,
     December 16. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2005/12/16/censor
     ship/index1.html (accessed December 19, 2005).

Entire book, print (see section 19.1, pg. 229-31)

One Author:

Ball, Philip. 2001. Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. New York:
     Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Multiple Authors:

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. 1994. Telling the truth
     about history.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Editor or Translator:

Adorno, Theodor W., and Walter Benjamin. 1999. The complete
     correspondence, 1928-1940.
Ed. Henri Lonitz. Trans. Nicholas Walker.
     Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 19.1.10, pg. 246)

Hellman, Hal. 2004. Great feuds in technology: Ten of the liveliest disputes
     ever.
New York: John Wiley. Rocket e-book.

Books published online (see section 19.1.10, pg. 246)
Samora, Julian, and Patricia Vandel Simon. 2000. A history of the Mexican-
     American people.
Rev. ed. East Lansing, MI: Julian Samora Research
     Institute, Michigan State University, 2000. http://www.jsri.msu.edu
     /museum/pubs/MexAmHist/chapter14.html#six (accessed December
     19, 2005).
Book chapter in edited collection, print (see section 19.1.9, pg. 244-5)

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. 1996. Religion and feminism: A
     reformist Christian analysis." In Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed.
     Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 11-32. Lousiville, KY:
     Westminster John Knox Press.

Works in anthologies, print (see section 19.1.9, pg. 245-6)

Wigglesworth, Michael. 2003 Excerpt from The Day of doom. In The new
     anthology of american poetry: Traditions and revolutions, beginnings to
     1900,
ed. Steven Gould Axelrod, Camille Roman, and Thomas
     Travisano, 68<-74. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Websites (see section 19.7.1, pg. 263-4)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library
    strategic plan, 2000-2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library.
     http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1-
    August 15, 2005).