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How to Cite Sources

Scientific Style and Format

CBE (Council of Biology Editors) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources in Biology.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Scientific Style and Format guide for how to cite other sources in CBE style:

  • Books, parts and contributions (Section 30.39, pg. 646-8)
  • Audiovisual Publications and Materials (Section 30.58-61, pg. 663-5)
  • Legal, Government, and Agency Documents (Sections 30.55-7, pg. 661-3)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use CBE style, see the Scientific Style and Format, 6th edition.

References Examples

Based on CBE Scientific Style and Format, 6th Edition, 1994.

*References to documents cited within the paper should be listed under the heading "References" or "Cited References."

*References to documents not specifically cited within the paper, but included as source material for the paper should be listed under the heading "Additional Reading" or "Bibliography."

 NOTE: CBE style is no longer current. The examples below do not reflect today's variety of electronic resources.  For the current citation style, see the CSE tab.


Citation-Sequence System

 

Articles from Journals: Print (see Section 30.19-29, pg. 634-40)

Format:

Author(s). Article title. Journal title year month; volume number(issue
      number):inclusive pages.

Example:

Steiner U, Klein J, Eiser E. Budkowski A, Fetters LJ. Complete wetting from
     polymer mixtures. Science 1992 Nov 13;258(5085):1122-9.

Articles from Journals: Electronic (see Section 30.63, pg. 666-7)

Format:

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated journal title [type of medium] date of
     publication; volume number(issue number):pagination. Availability
     statement. [Date of accession if needed].

Example:

Cisler S. MediaTracks. Public Access Comput Syst Rev [serial online]
     1990;1(3):109-15. Available from: Public Access Computer Systems
     Forum PACS-L via the INTERNET. Accessed 1990 Nov 29.

OR

Harrison CL, Schmidt PQ, Jones JD. Aspirin compared with
     acetoaminophen for relief of headache. Online J Therap [serial online]
     1992 Jan 2;Doc nr 1:[4320 words; 10 paragraphs]. 5 figures; 10 tables.

Articles from Newspapers: Print (see Section 30.53 pg. 658-60)

Format:

Author(s). Article title. Newspaper title and date of publication; section
     designator:page number(column number).

Example:

Rensberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process.
     Washington Post 1989 Aug 7;Sect A:2(col 5).

Articles from Magazine: Print (see Section 30.53 pg. 658-60)

Format:

Author(s). Article title. Magazine title and date of publication:page numbers.

Example:

Lu C. A small revelation: newton has arrived at long last. Macworld 1993
     Sep:102-6.

Books: Print (see Section 30.30-38, pg. 641-6)

Format:

Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Title. Place of publication: publisher name; Year.
     Number of pages. 

Example:

Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley; 1990. 1223 p.

OR

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis
     of therapeutics. 8th ed. new York: Pergamon; 1990. 1811 p.

Books: Electronic (see Section 30.64 pg. 667)

Format:

Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Title [type of medium]. Place of publication:
     publisher name; Year. Number of pages. Availability statement. [Date of
     accession if needed].

Example:

MARTINDALE ONLINE [monograph online]. London: Pharmaceutical
     Society of Great Britain; 1989 [updated 1989 Dec]. Available from: Dialog
     Information Services, Palo Alto, CA. Related to the publication Martindale,
     The Extra Pharmacopoeia. Accessed 1990 Jan 10.

OR

THE MERCK INDEX ONLINE [monograph online]. 10th ed. Rahway (NJ):
     Merck;1984 [updated 1989 Jan]. Acyclovir; monograph nr 140 [44 lines].
     Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean, VA. Accessed
     1990 Dec 7.

Technical Reports (see Section 30.45-9, pg. 652-5)

Format:

Author(s) (performing organization). Title. Place of publication: publisher or
     sponsoring organization; date of publication. Report number. Contract
     number. Total number of pages. Availability statement.

Example:

Cooper LN (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI).
     Theoretical and experimental research into biological mechanisms
     underlying learning and memory. Final progress report 1 Aug 88-31 Jul
     89. Washington: Air Force Office of Scientific Research; 1990 Apr 24.
     Report nr AFOSR-TR-90-0672. Contract nr AFOSR-88-0288;2305;B4.
     19 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: AD-A223615.

OR

Johns Hopkins University [JHU], Applied Physics Laboratory. Biomedical
     research, development, and engineering at the Johns Hopkins
     University Applied Physics Laboratory. Annual report 1 Oct 78-10 Sep 79.
     Laurel (MD): JHU; 1979 Oct. Report nr JHU/APL/MQR-79. 74 p.

Conference Proceedings (see Section 30.41-3, pg. 648-50)

Format:

Editor(s). Title of publication or conference. Name of conference (if not the
     2nd element); inclusive dates of conference; place of conference. Place
     of publication: publisher; date of publication. Total number of pages.

Example:

Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community response.
     1st AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Mar
     30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Assoc; 1985. 256 p.


Name-Year System

 

Articles from Journals: Print (see Section 30.19-29, pg. 634-40)

Format:

Author(s). year. Article title. Journal title volume number(issue
     number):inclusive pages.

Example:

Steiner U, Klein J, Eiser E, Budkowski A, Fetters LJ. 1992 Nov 13. Complete
     wetting from polymer mixtures. Science 258(5085):1122-9.

Articles from Journals: Electronic (see Section 30.63, pg. 666-7)

Format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article.  Abbreviated journal title [type
     of medium]; volume number(issue number):pagination. Availability
     statement. [Date of accession if needed].

Example:

Cisler S. 1990. MediaTracks. Public Access Comput Syst Rev [serial
     online];1(3):109-15. Available from: Public Access Computer Systems
     Forum PACS-L via the INTERNET. Accessed 1990 Nov 29.

OR

Harrison CL, Schmidt PQ, Jones JD. 1992 Jan 2. Aspirin compared with
     acetoaminophen for relief of headache. Online J Therap [serial
     online];Doc nr 1:[4320 words; 10 paragraphs]. 5 figures;
     10 tables.

Articles from Newspapers: Print (see Section 30.53 pg. 658-60)

Format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. Newspaper title; section
     designator:page number(column number).

Example:

Rensberger B, Specter B. 1989 Aug 7. CFCs may be destroyed by natural
     process. Washington Post;Sect A:2(col 5).

Articles from Magazine: Print (see Section 30.53 pg. 658-60)

Format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Article title. NMagazine title:page numbers.

Example:

Lu C. 1993 Sep. A small revelation: newton has arrived at long last.
     Macworld:102-6.

Books: Print (see Section 30.30-38, pg. 641-6)

Format:

Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Year. Title. Place of publication: publisher name.
     Number of pages.

Example:

Voet D, Voet JG. 1990. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley. 1223 p.

OR

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. 1990. The pharmacological
     basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. 1811 p.

Books: Electronic (see Section 30.64 pg. 667)

Format:

Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Publication date. Title [type of medium]. Place of
     publication: publisher name; Number of pages. Availability statement.
     [Date of accession if needed].

Example:

[PSGB} Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 1989. MARTINDALE
     ONLINE [monograph online]. London: PSGB; [updated 1989 Dec].
     Available from: Dialog Information Services, Palo Alto, CA. Related to the
     publication Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia. Accessed 1990
     Jan 10.

OR

Merck. 1984. THE MERCK INDEX ONLINE [monograph online]. 10th ed.
     Rahway (NJ): Merck;1984 [updated 1989 Jan]. Acyclovir; monograph nr
     140 [44 lines]. Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean,
     VA. Accessed 1990 Dec 7.

Technical Reports (see Section 30.45-9, pg. 652-5)

Format:

Author(s) (performing organization). Date of Publication. Title. Place of
     publication: publisher or sponsoring organization. Report number.
     Contract number. Total number of pages. Availabiligy statement.

Example:

Cooper LN (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI).
     1990. Theoretical and experimental research into biological
     mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Final progress report 1
     Aug 88-31 Jul 89. Washington: Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
     Report nr AFOSR-TR-90-0672. Contract nr AFOSR-88-0288;2305;B4.
     19 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: AD-A223615.

OR

[JHU] Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory. 1979 Oct.
     Biomedical research, development, and engineering at the Johns
     Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Annual report 1 Oct
     78-10 Sep 79. Laurel (MD): JHU. Report nr JHU/APL/MQR-79. 74 p.

Conference Proceedings (see Section 30.41-3, pg. 648-50)

Format:

Editor(s). Date of publication. Title of publication or conference. Name of
     conference (if not the 2nd element); inclusive dates of conference; place
     of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Total number of pages.

Example:

Vivian VL, editor. 1985. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community
     response. 1st AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect;
     1984 Mar 30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Assoc. 256 p.

Books on Scientific Writing