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How to Cite Sources

APA Publication Manual

APA (American Psychological Association) style is the most commonly used style to cite sources within the social sciences.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the APA Manual for how to cite other sources in APA style:

  • Technical and Research Reports (Section 7.03, pg. 205)
  • Audiovisual Media (Section 7.04, pg. 209)
  • Legal Materials (Section Appendix 7.1, pg. 216)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style, see the APA Manual.

References Examples

Based on Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010.

See also McQuade Examples for Citing Popular Business Sources


Journal Article with DOI (see section 7.01 1., pg. 198)

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status,
     and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24,
    225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article with DOI, more than seven authors (see section 7.01 2., pg. 198)

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C.,
    Asgaard, G., ...Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG
    activation and attention last more than 31 days and are more
    severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits.
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267.
    doi.10.1080/14622200410001676305

Journal Article without DOI (see section 7.01 3., pg. 199)

Print:

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
    immigration in the United States and its implications for local law
    enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Online:

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
    mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness.
    E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
    http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/indes.php/ejap

Newspaper article (see section 7.01 10. & 11., pg. 200)

Print:

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.
    The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Online:

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The
    New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Entire book, print (see section 7.02 18., pg. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
    dependency.
London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 7.02 19., pg. 203)

O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from
    http://www.online originals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135

Electronic-only book (see section 7.02 21., pg. 203)

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
    dependency.
[DX Reader version]. Retrieved from
    http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A
    guide to healing, recovery, and growth
[Adobe Digital Editions version].
    doi:10.1036/0071393722

Book chapter, print (see section 7.02 25., pg. 204)

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being.
    In M Eid & R. J. Larson (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.
    17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Reference book, print (see section 7.02 27., pg 204)

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington,
    DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry in an online reference work (see section 7.02 29. & 30., pg. 205)

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford
    encyclopedia of philosophy
(Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
    http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved
    from http://www.m-w.com/dictinoary/heuristic