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CRM6002G Criminal Law & Procedure (Darling)

APA Formatting & Citations (7th edition)

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the social sciences.

If you are asked to use APA format, be sure to consult the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, located in McQuade Library's reference collection:

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) is the gold standard for online tools to teach you about citations and formatting.

From the website you can learn to:

  • Format in-text, and full bibliographical citations for a variety of source types
  • Follow formatting and style guidelines for a variety of assignments

Citing Government Sources, CFR & FTC

The APA style of citation refers a writer to The Bluebook, when citing government documents and other legal material.

Here is some basic information on how to cite sources from the CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] and the FTC actions:

Code of Federal Regulations:

In-text: (Protection of Human Subjects, 2004)

Reference list: Protection of Human Subjects, 34 C.F.R. pt. 97 (2004).

»»EXPLANATION: Regulation is in Title 34, part 97. (APA Manual erroneously calls the first number a "volume" instead of "title" number. [p. 223] )

Citation example of a consent decree:

Consent Decree, Jackson v. Artisan (No. 88-C-64, E.D. Wis., July 19, 1990), available as document no. JC-WI-0002-0001, at

Courtesy University of Michigan Law School : // Courtesy University of  Nebraska Kearney

Getting Started with NoodleTools

NoodleTools is an online research management platform that promotes critical thinking and authentic research. NoodleTools helps to keep researchers organized as they evaluate information, build accurate citations, archive source material, take notes, outline topics, and prepare to write. Using NoodleTools, users can generate citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago/Turabian styles, as well as create note cards and outlines. NoodleTools also allows researchers to collaborate with peers and instructors.