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How to Cite Sources

Scientific Style and Format

CSE(Council of Science Editors) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources in the sciences, including BIOLOGY.

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Scientific Style and Format guide for how to cite other sources in CSE style:

  • Maps (Section 29.3.7.9, pg. 545-7)
  • Audiovisuals (Section 29.3.7.11, pg. 548-52)
  • Personal Communications (Section 29.3.7.15.3, pg. 568)
  • Legal Materials (Section 29.3.7.10, pg. 547)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use CSE style, see the Scientific Style and Format text.

CSE Format Basics

 

References Examples

Based on CSE Scientific Style and Format, 7th Edition, 2006

*Use one of the following headings:

"References"
"Cited References"
"Literature Cited"
"Bibliography"


Citation-sequence and citation-name styles

 

Articles from Journals: Print (see Section 29.3.7.1 pg. 518-527)

Format:

Author(s). Article Title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.

Example:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise raining for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49-58.

Articles from Journals: Online (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 557)

Format:

Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of jounal (edition) [medium designator]. Date of publication [date updated; date cited];volume(issue):location. Notes.

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 May 31]; 330(7500):1119-1120. Available from: http://www.bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprting/330/7500/1119 doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119

Articles from Newspapers: Print (see Section 29.3.7.8 pg. 543)

Format:

Author(s). Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Date;section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Example:

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Books: Print (see Section 29.3.7.2 pg. 527-534)

Format:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

Books: Online (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 556-64)

Format:

Author(s). Title of book [medium designator].  Edition. Place of publication; publisher; date of publication [date updated; date cited]. Notes.

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Loweontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis [Internet]. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [cited 2005 May 31]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga. TOC

Technical Reports (see Section 29.3.7.4 pg. 537)

Format:

Athor(s). Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Report No.: Notes.

Example:

Feller BA. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 1981. Report NO.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

Conference Proceedings (see Section 29.3.7.3 pg. 534)

Format:

Editor(s). Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; 2003 Jul 27-30; Orlando, FL. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics.

Web Site (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 556-64)

Format:

Title of Homepage [medium deisnator]. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date cited]. Notes.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2005 [cited 2005 Jun 20]. Available from http://www.apsnet.org/


Name-year style

 

Articles from Journals: Print (see Section 29.3.7.1 pg. 518-527)

Format:

Author(s). Date. Article Title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Example:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003.0A practical guide to exercise raining for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49-58.

Articles from Journals: Online (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 557-8)

Format:

Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of jounal (edition) [medium designator]. [date updated; date cited];volume(issue):location. Notes.

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown. 2005.0Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ [Internet]. [cited 2005 May 31]; 330(7500):1119-1120. Available from: http://www.bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprting/330/7500/1119 doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119

Articles from Newspapers: Print (see Section 29.3.7.8 pg. 543)

Format:

Author(s). Date. Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Example:

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Books: Print (see Section 29.3.7.2 pg. 527-534)

Format:

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

Books: Online (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 556-64)

Format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of book [medium designator].  Edition. Place of publication; publisher; [date updated; date cited]. Notes.

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Loweontin RC, Gelbart WM. c2000. Introduction to genetic analysis [Internet]. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman & Co.; [cited 2005 May 31]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga. TOC
Technical Reports (see Section 29.3.7.4 pg. 537)

Format:

Athor(s). Date. Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Extent. Report No.: Notes. 

Example:

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report NO.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

Conference Proceedings (see Section 29.3.7.3 pg. 534)

Format:

Editor(s). Date. Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. c2003. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; Orlando, FL. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics.

Web Site (see Section 29.3.7.13 pg. 556-64)

Format:

Title of Homepage [medium deisnator]. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date cited]. Notes.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. c1994-2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [cited 2005 Jun 20]. Available from http://www.apsnet.org/

Scientific Writing